Exact coverages differ from state to state and company to company, but Personal Property, also known as Coverage C, primarily pertains to the contents of your home and the other property items that you own. A common way to think of it is if you tipped your home on its side and shook it, everything that fell out would be considered your personal property, and that would typically include your furniture. Most companies will cover your personal property anywhere in the world with certain exclusions and special limits. There are also optional endorsements that you can add to your policy to extend or increase coverage, depending on your individual needs. You should discuss all of these with your agent to insure that your property is well covered.
Also take a look at our discussion of a home inventory and consider filling one out. Home Inventories are invaluable in the aftermath of a catastrophe and can help expedite the process with your insurance company. It can be difficult to take stock of everything lost after a claim, no matter the cause or amount, so having a list of what you have-along with a few pictures-in multiple safe locations is a very good idea.